40. Threats to international peace and security Untitled

40. Threats to international peace and security Overview During the period under review, the Security Council heard two briefings by the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and adopted one presidential statement in connection with the item entitled “Threats to international peace and security”. The Council explored a comprehensive, balanced and coordinated response to counter the threats to international peace and security posed by drug trafficking, organized crime and terrorism. 24 February 2010 and 24 June 2011: response to transnational threats On 24 February 2010, the Secretary-General stressed that the response to transnational threats, including drug trafficking and organized crime, should be global and integrated, both within the United Nations system and among Member States.933 The Executive Director of UNODC pointed out that the newly released report entitled “Crime and instability: case studies of transnational threats”934 underlined that 933 S/PV.6277, p. 2. 934 UNODC (Vienna, 2010). 262 14-65169 __________________ Part I. Consideration of questions under the responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security vulnerability attracted crime and crime, in turn, deepened vulnerability. To address the question of how a multilateral system created to deal with tensions between nations could fight non-State, transnational criminal groups, he suggested a two-pronged approach: States must strengthen their own capacity but also, national efforts must become part of a multilateral framework. He noted that the legal framework and judicial institutions needed to ensure the rule of law and better intelligence-sharing among Member States were crucial in tackling organized crime.935 Council members expressed deep concern over the threat of transnational organized crime to international peace and security. They noted that such criminals took advantage of the opportunities presented by globalization and advances in technology.936 The representatives of Turkey and Lebanon noted that transnational threats undermined peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding efforts.937 The representative of China stated that international cooperation must adhere to the principles of respect for sovereignty and equal mutual benefit, and stressed that the Council should focus on drug trafficking and related transnational organized crime faced by countries in conflict or in post-conflict situations so as to help address the problem of armed conflict.938 The Council then adopted a presidential statement in which it, inter alia, noted with concern the serious threats posed in some cases by drug trafficking 935 S/PV.6277, pp. 3-4. 936 Ibid., p. 6 (Turkey); p. 17 (United States); and p. 19 (Austria). 937 Ibid., p. 6 (Turkey); and p. 11 (Lebanon). 938 Ibid., p. 10. and transnational organized crime to international security in different regions of the world, called upon States to continue to condemn in the strongest terms all terrorist acts, and invited the Secretary-General to consider those threats as a factor in conflict prevention strategies, conflict analysis, and integrated missions assessment and planning. Furthermore, it encouraged States to strengthen international, regional and subregional cooperation to counter drug trafficking, transnational organized crime, terrorism and corruption and to investigate and prosecute, as appropriate, persons and entities responsible for these crimes, consistent with international law.939 On 24 June 2011, the Executive Director of UNODC reported that a United Nations system task force on transnational organized crime and drug trafficking had started its work. He underscored four areas of response to the threat: strengthening international collaboration, building regional capacity, reinforcing the criminal justice system and adopting a comprehensive and cross-disciplinary strategy.940 While some speakers stressed a coordinated approach to address the threat,941 other speakers called for a comprehensive and balanced drug control strategy, including curbing both supply of and demand for drugs, and providing alternative livelihoods through sustainable economic development.942 939 S/PRST/2010/4. 940 S/PV.6565, pp. 2-3. 941 Ibid., p. 4 (India); p. 6 (Brazil); p. 8 (United Kingdom); p. 9 (Nigeria); and p. 15 (France). 942 Ibid., p. 11 (South Africa); p. 13 (China); p. 14 (Lebanon); and p. 17 (Colombia). Meetings: threats to international peace and security Meeting and date Sub-item Other documents Rule 39 and other invitatio ns Speakers Decision and vote (for-against-abstaining) 6277 24 February 2010 Briefing by the Executive Director of UNODC Letter from the representative of France to the Secretary-General, transmitting a concept paper (S/2010/94) Executive Director of UNODC Secretary-General, all Council members, Executive Director of UNODC S/PRST/2010/4 6565 24 June 2011 Briefing by the Executive Director of UNODC Executive Director of UNODC All Council members, Executive Director of UNODC 14-65169 263 __________________ __________________ Repertoire of the Practice of the Security Council, 2010-2011 41. Maintenance of international peace and security Overview In 2010 and 2011, the Security Council held nine meetings, including one at the level of Heads of State or Government943 and, in connection with the item entitled “Maintenance of international peace and security”, adopted one resolution and six presidential statements. Sub-items considered during the period included: (a) intercultural dialogue for peace and security; (b) optimizing the use of preventive diplomacy tools: prospects and challenges in Africa; (c) ensuring the Security Council’s effective role in maintaining international peace and security; (d) the interdependence between security and development; (e) impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on international peace and security; (f) impact of climate change; (g) conflict prevention; (h) moving forward with security sector reform: prospects and challenges in Africa; and (i) new challenges to international peace and security and conflict prevention. 26 May 2010: intercultural dialogue for peace and security On 26 May 2010, the Council held in a high-level debate on the theme of intercultural dialogue for peace and security in relation to the maintenance of international peace and security. Recalling that the General Assembly had proclaimed 2010 the International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures, the Secretary-General stated that the challenge for the Council was to follow up on its discussion by incorporating intercultural dialogue into its efforts to maintain international peace and security. All Council members agreed that intercultural dialogue was an important instrument of preventive diplomacy, conflict management and resolution and peacebuilding.944 16 July 2010: optimizing the use of preventive diplomacy tools: prospects and challenges in Africa On 16 July 2010, the Council held an open debate on optimizing the use of preventive diplomacy tools: prospects and challenges in Africa. The Deputy Secretary-General said that preventive diplomacy must evolve to deal with increasingly complex threats and 943 6389th meeting. 944 See S/PV.6322. called for, inter alia, more multifaceted, integrated prevention strategies and strengthened partnerships.945 She was supported by the Director for the World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development of the World Bank, who offered an economic analysis of the current approaches to conflict management, comparing the costs of civil war to the far lower costs of mediation.946 Speakers unanimously agreed that in terms of cost effectiveness, preventive diplomacy tools — including conflict prevention, mediation, good offices, fact-finding missions, negotiation, special envoys, informal consultations, peacebuilding and targeted development activities — could be more efficient and useful, as well as less risky than military and peacekeeping activities, in delivering desired peace dividends. Despite universal concurrence, however, many speakers lamented the paradoxical reluctance to provide adequate and predictable resources, and called for greater financial support for conflict prevention initiatives, such as the Mediation and Support Unit of the Department of Political Affairs. Many speakers reiterated support for the role of women in conflict prevention and peacebuilding, calling for increased participation, representation and full involvement of women in preventive diplomacy efforts and related decision-making processes in line with the Council’s resolutions.947 In connection with the role of the Council, many speakers agreed that although primary responsibility for conflict prevention was with sovereign nation States, the Council should encourage and support the efforts of the Secretary-General, the African Union and subregional organizations, through early warning systems, mediation efforts, the sharing of information and other multilateral mechanisms, to respond effectively to potential and emerging threats. At the end of the meeting, the Council adopted a presidential statement, in which it recognized the importance of a comprehensive strategy comprising operational and structural measures for the prevention of armed conflict, and encouraged the development of measures to address the root causes of conflicts in order to ensure sustainable peace. The Council recalled the previous statements by its President concerning the various factors and causes that played a role in 945 S/PV.6360, pp. 5-7. 946 Ibid, pp. 7-8. 947 See resolutions 1325 (2000), 1820 (2008), 1888 (2009) and 1889 (2009). 264 14-651

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Advisory Committee: Yves Berthelot (France),  PV Rajagopal (India), Vandana Shiva (India), Oliver de Schutter (Belgium), Mazide N’Diaye (Senegal), Gabriela Monteiro (Brazil), Irakli Kakabadze (Georgia), Anne Pearson (Canada), Liz Theoharis (USA), Sulak Sivaraksa (Thailand), Jagat Basnet (Nepal), Miloon Kothari (India),  Irene Santiago (Philippines), Arsen Kharatyan (Armenia), Margrit Hugentobler (Switzerland), Jill Carr-Harris (Canada/India), Reva Joshee (Canada), Sonia Deotto (Mexico/Italy),Benjamin Joyeux (Geneva/France), Aneesh Thillenkery, Ramesh Sharma, Ran Singh (India)